Tag Archive : rpi

/ rpi

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Hard-Float Debian Wheezy on Raspberry Pi. For installing soft-float version, you can follow this article.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Official Debian Wheezy

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Hard-Float and Soft-Float?

Hard-Float (hardware floating point calculation) and Soft-Float (software floating point calculation) are refers to how floating point are calculated.

The difference of Hard-float and Soft-float lies on how and what method are used to calculated floating points. The hard-float means floating point calculations are processed by chip hardware whereas soft-float calculations are emulated. This impact on performance and theoretically hard-floats won the race in term of speed. But some application / software doesn’t support hard-float code so despite of the facts, it needs to be installed on soft-float system.

If you are familiar with Intel processor, you will find similarity between their (Intel and ARM) situation. Hard-float is pretty much comparable to floating point calculation using 80×87 maths co-processor. Hardware float-point calculation will win every time on speed but on some occasion (if processor cannot float or perform correctly, i.e. on Cyrix 486 or early Pentium) the software emulation will win for sure.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used are Debian Wheezy which use hard-float system ABI provided by Raspberry Pi on their download page. The version I use is latest version at time of writing this article (per March 10th, 2013). You can either direct download on this link, or download by torrent by this link.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

To log in on your Raspberry pi you can use the default login, which is:

Username: pi
Password: raspberry

Have fun 😀

Installing Fedora Remix for Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | 1 Comment

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Fedore Remix for Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Fedora Remix ARM

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used is Fedora Remix for ARM. On fedoraproject ARM official site, there is no official support. The reason may come from licensing support or lack of upstream support. However, unofficial fedora remix for Raspberry pi can be found here. You can also directly download the image from here.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case rpfr-f18-final.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L rpfr-f18-final.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L rpfr-f18-final.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case rpfr-f18-final.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=rpfr-f18-final.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case rpfr-f18-final.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA). You also need to plug an Ethernet cable to a network with a DHCP server and internet gateway. This will be used to set the system clock.

Unlike other images such as Debian Wheezy, you don’t need to do SD card resizing as the fedora will do it for you.

If you use interactive system, you will be prompted to do final system configuration such as setting the root password, create account, set the timezone, and select character mode or graphical default operation. These process are managed by Raspberry Pi init script.

Have fun 😀

Installing Bodhi Linux on Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | No Comments

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Bodhi Linux Mobile for Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. BodhiLinux ARM

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used is Bodhi Linux for Mobile and can be downloaded from here. You can also directly download the image from here.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case bodhi-pi-20130125.img.tar.gz) so you will get an .img file. Extraction on Windows can be done using 3rd party utility such as 7zip.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L bodhi-pi-20130125.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L bodhi-pi-20130125.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case bodhi-pi-20130125.img.tar.gz) so you will get an .img file. To extract you can use 3rd party tool such as 7zip.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=bodhi-pi-20130125.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case bodhi-pi-20130125.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To log in on your Raspberry pi you can use the default login, which is:

Username: pi
Password: bodhilinux

Have fun 😀

Installing RISC OS On Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | No Comments

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install RISC OS on Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Official RISC OS

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

What is RISC OS?

RISC OS is a computer Operating System initially designed and developed by Acorn in Cambridge, England. RISC OS was specifically designed to run on the ARM chipset for their Archimedes personal computers. The name RISC is taken form RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) architecture it support.

Now, the OS is owned by  Castle Technology, and maintained by RISC OS Open. RISC is not for desktop OS which use x86 CPU. Hence it is not very popular and familiar. But mostly RISC OS Is used on embedded system, specifically for the system which use ARM.
RISC OS is unix-like Operating System but differ from Linux.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used are RISC OS provided by Raspberry Pi on their download page. The version I use is latest version at time of writing this article (per March 10th, 2013). You can either direct download on this link, or download by torrent by this link. This version of RISC OS for Raspberry Pi is free of charge.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case riscos-2012-11-01-RC6.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L riscos-2012-11-01-RC6.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L riscos-2012-11-01-RC6.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=riscos-2012-11-01-RC6.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case riscos-2012-11-01-RC6.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

RISC OS is different to other Operating System for Raspberry we have discussed (hence, they are Linux-based).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

Installing Gentoo on Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | No Comments

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Gentoo on Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Gentoo

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used is Gentoo which use hard-float system ABI. Gentoo actively builds new version for this project. You can check the available version at here. You can use any version, but in this article I use build for armv7. The one i use can be downloaded here.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.tar.bz2) so you will get an .img file. To extract the file in Windows, you can use 3rd party tools such as 7zip.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case stage3-armv7a_hardfp-20130209.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

Have fun 😀

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Soft-Float Debian Wheezy on Raspberry Pi. For installing Hard-Float version, you can follow this article.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Official Debian Wheezy

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Hard-Float and Soft-Float?

Hard-Float (hardware floating point calculation) and Soft-Float (software floating point calculation) are refers to how floating point are calculated.

The difference of Hard-float and Soft-float lies on how and what method are used to calculated floating points. The hard-float means floating point calculations are processed by chip hardware whereas soft-float calculations are emulated. This impact on performance and theoretically hard-floats won the race in term of speed. But some application / software doesn’t support hard-float code so despite of the facts, it needs to be installed on soft-float system.

If you are familiar with Intel processor, you will find similarity between their (Intel and ARM) situation. Hard-float is pretty much comparable to floating point calculation using 80×87 maths co-processor. Hardware float-point calculation will win every time on speed but on some occasion (if processor cannot float or perform correctly, i.e. on Cyrix 486 or early Pentium) the software emulation will win for sure.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used are Debian Wheezy which use soft-float system ABI provided by Raspberry Pi on their download page. The version I use is latest version at time of writing this article (per March 10th, 2013). You can either direct download on this link, or download by torrent by this link.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case 2012-08-08-wheezy-armel.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L 2012-08-08-wheezy-armel.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L 2012-08-08-wheezy-armel.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case 2013-02-09-wheezy-raspbian.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=2012-08-08-wheezy-armel.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case 2012-08-08-wheezy-armel.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

To log in on your Raspberry pi you can use the default login, which is:

Username: pi
Password: raspberry

Have fun 😀

Installing PwnPi on Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | No Comments

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install PwnPi on Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. PwnPi

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

What is PwnPi?

PwnPi is a Linux-based penetration testing dropbox distribution specially designed for Raspberry Pi. PwnPi use Debian Wheezy as its base with some stripped. Currently PwnPi support around 200 tools and used for many penetration testing activities. PwnPi empowering simplicity. Use Openbox as the window manager. PwnPi can be easiliy setup to send reverse connection from inside a target network by editing a simple configuration file.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System I use here is the latest version of PwnPi which is v3.0 final at time of writing this article. The image can be can be downloaded from here.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case pwnpi-3.0.img.7z) so you will get an .img file. To extract the file in Windows, you can use 3rd party tools such as 7zip.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L pwnpi-3.0.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L pwnpi-3.0.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case pwnpi-3.0.img.7zip) so you will get an .img file. To extract this file, you must have 7zip package installed.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=pwnpi-3.0.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case pwnpi-3.0.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

Have fun 😀

Installing Arch Linux on Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | 1 Comment

Raspberry Pi, a small computer powered by ARM architecture is a very interesting board for learning embedded system. In this article we will discuss about how to install how to install Arch Linux ARM on Raspberry Pi.

For this article I use following:

  1. Slackware64 14.0
  2. Windows 8
  3. Raspberry Pi model B
  4. Official Arch Linux ARM

You can use either Linux (in this article, Slackware) or Windows (in this article Windows 8). Just pick one and follow the rest of article for your choice.

Obtain the Materials

The Operating System images I used are Arch Linux ARM which use hard-float system ABI provided by Raspberry Pi on their download page. The version I use is latest version at time of writing this article (per March 10th, 2013) and only use hard-float ABI. You can either direct download on this link, or download by torrent by this link.

Prepare the Disk (SD Card)

To boot the Raspberry Pi, an installation media and storage media is needed. All we need is a single SD card. On this article I use my 8GB SD card. You can use any SD card you want, but I recommend to use at least 4GB SD card. The image we download on previous section will be stored on this card and later installed. Make sure you have a way to write on SD card.

Windows-based Instruction

For Windows user, you can follow this section to “burn” the image. For this purpose you need additional software for writing to SD card, such as Win32DiskImager utility.

  1. Extract the image (in this case archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader and check what drive letter it assigned to. For example G:\
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Run the Win32DiskImager with administrator privileges.
  5. Select the image we have extracted.
  6. Select the drive letter of the SD card on our machine. Make sure you have the correct drive, or you will destroy data on that drive.
  7. Click Write and wait. The process should be not long.
  8. Exit the imager and eject the SD card

Beside Win32DiskImager, you can also use other tool such as Flashnul.

  1. Follow step 1 to step 3 for Win32DiskImager’s solution
  2. Extract Flashnul from the archive
  3. Open command prompt with elevated privilege (administrator privilege).
  4. Go to your extracted directory and run flashnul with argument “-p”. For example: flashnul -p
  5. You will get list of physical drive attached on your machine, and list of drive. Make sure the drive is correct. At time of writing this article, the SD card is detected as device number 1 with and mounted to drive G:
  6. Load the image to flashnul: flashnul 1 -L archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.img
  7. If you get an access denied error, try re-plugging the SD card and make sure to close all explorer windows or folders open for the device. If still get denial, try substitute the device number with its drive letter: flashnul G: -L archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.img

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Linux-based Instruction

Writing image on Linux is easier, in my opinion. The utility we use is “dd” which is already bundled on most distro. Make sure you know the correct device file for your SD card. In my machine I use a built in card reader and detect my SD card as /dev/sdb. It might be different on your system so better check it. For this article I use /dev/sdb to refer to SD card.

  1. Extract the image (in this case archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.zip) so you will get an .img file.
  2. Insert SD card into SD card reader .
  3. If it is not new, format it. Or at least make sure there is only one partition (FAT32 is recommended).
  4. Unmount the SD card if it is mounted. We need the whole SD card so if you see partition such as /dev/sdb1, etc its better you unmount them all.
  5. Write the image to SD card. Make sure you replace the input file after if= argument with correct path to .img file and “/dev/sdb” in the output file of= argument with your device. Also make sure to use whole SD drive and not their partition (i.e. not use /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb1, etc). The command: dd bs=4M if=archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.img of=/dev/sdb
  6. Run sync as root. This will ensure the write cache is flushed and safe to unmount SD card.
  7. Remove SD card from card reader.

If you hesitate to use terminal and prefer to use GUI method, here is the tutorial. Note that we

  1. Do step 1 to step 3 for previous tutorial. Make sure your directory or image file doesn’t contain any spaces.
  2. Install the ImageWriter tool from https://launchpad.net/usb-imagewriter
  3. Launch the ImageWriter tool (needs administrative privileges)
  4. Select the image file (in this case archlinux-hf-2013-02-11.img) to be written to the SD card (note: because you started ImageWriter as administrator the starting point when selecting the image file is the administrator’s home folder so you need to change to your own home folder to select the image file)
  5. Select the target device to write the image to. In my case, it’s /dev/sdb
  6. Click the “Write to device” button
  7. Wait for the process to finish and then insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi

At this point, you have successfully written image to your SD card. And I assume you are. You can proceed to next stage.

Running the Pi

You have write image and at this point your raspberry pi is ready. Now set up raspberry pi to boot: insert your SD card back to raspberry pi, put on power, plug video output (either HDMI or RCA).

To resize the SD card after installation, you can follow this article.

To log in on your Raspberry pi you can use the default login, which is:

Username: root
Password: root

Have fun 😀

Architecture of Raspberry Pi

December 5, 2015 | Article | No Comments

Raspberry pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer developed by Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools.

Raspberry pi has a Broadcom BCM2853 System on Chip (SoC) which includes ARM1176JF-S 700 MHz processor. The firmware includes number of “Turbo” modes so that user can attempt overclocking up to 1 GHz without affecting the warranty. Pi also implements VideoCore IV GPU and originally shipped with 256 MB of RAM, later upgraded to 512 MB. It does not include a built-in hard disk or solid-state drive as used on PC / notebook, but uses and SD car for booting and long-term storage.

Raspberry Pi foundation offer two versions of Pi, priced at US$25 and US35.

For the Operating System, The Foundation provides Debian and Arch Linux ARM distribution for download and also planned tools for supporting Python as the main programming language with support for BBC Basic (via RISC OS image or the “Brandy Basic” clone for Linux), C, and Perl.

This article will discuss about Raspberry Pi’s architecture, for model A ($25) and model B ($35).

General Specification

Model A has one USB port and no Ethernet controller with less cost than the Model B with two USB ports and a 10/100 Ethernet controller. Eventhough the Model A doesn’t have an RJ45 Ethernet port, it can connect to a network by using a user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. In reality there is no difference between a model A with an external Ethernet adapter and a model B with one built in, because the Ethernet port of the model B is actually a built-in USB Ethernet adapter. As is typical of modern computers, generic USB keyboards and mice are compatible with the Raspberry Pi.

The Raspberry Pi does not come with a real-time clock,so an OS must use a network time server, or ask the user for time information at boot time to get access to time and date for file time and date stamping. However, a real-time clock (such as the DS1307) with battery backup can be added via the I²C interface.

Hardware accelerated video supported default by Pi is H.264. At the same time The Raspberry Pi Foundation has release two additional codecs that can be bought separately, MPEG-2 and Microsoft’s VC-1. Also Pi will support CEC, enabling it to be controlled with the television’s remote control.

The Processing Unit

Both model A and model B has Broadcom BCM2835 (CPU, GPU, DSP, SDRAM). The CPU use ARM1176JFZ-S core (ARM11 family) and run on 700MHz clock. The SDRAM is shared between CPU and GPU but in different amount on two model. Model A has 256 MB of memory while model B has 512 MB of memory.

On the older beta model B boards, 128 MB was allocated by default to the GPU, leaving 128 MB for the CPU. On the first 256 MB release model B (and Model A), three different splits were possible. The default split was 192 MB (CPU RAM), which should be sufficient for standalone 1080p video decoding, or for simple 3D, but probably not for both together. 224 MB was for Linux only, with just a 1080p framebuffer, and was likely to fail for any video or 3D. 128 MB was for heavy 3D, possibly also with video decoding (e.g. XBMC).  For the new model B with 512MB RAM initially there were new standard memory split files released( arm256_start.elf, arm384_start.elf, arm496_start.elf) for 256MB, 384MB and 496MB CPU RAM (thus leaves 256MB, 128MB and 16MB video RAM). But a week or so later the RPF released a new version of start.elf that could read a new entry in config.txt (gpu_mem=xx) and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM (from 16 to 256MB in 8MB steps) to the GPU, so the older method of memory splits became obsolete, and a single start.elf worked the same for 256 and 512 MB Pis.

The Input Output

For video output aspberry use Composite RCA (PAL and NTSC), HDMI (rev 1.3 & 1.4), and raw LCD Panels via DSI 14 HDMI from 640×350 to 1920×1200 plus various PAL and NTSC standards for both model.

For audio output both model utilize 3.5 mm jack, HDMI, and also I²S audio.

For a low-level purpose, Raspberry Pi utilize 8 x GPIO, UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +3.3 v, +5V, ground.

Power Rating and Source

To run Raspberry Pi a minimal 5 volt must be supplied to the board. While the model A need 300mA (rating 1.5 W), the model B use 700 mA (rating 3.5 W). The power can be delivered to MicroUSB or GPIO header.

Social media & sharing icons powered by UltimatelySocial